Input data set: GSWP3-ERA5

Protocol relation: Protocol
Data Type: Observed atmospheric climate
Simulation rounds: ISIMIP2a

ERA5 global meteorological forcing data processed for ISIMIP2a.

Scenarios: hist-obs
Variables: tasmax, tas, tasmin, rlds, hurs, huss, wind, rsds, prsn, ps, pr
Data source

ERA5 global meteorological forcing data processed for ISIMIP2a. Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information [2019] and data from the GSWP3 dataset, developed by Hyungjun Kim with support by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (16H06291).

ERA5 reanalysis data at 0.25° spatial and hourly temporal resolution ( All users of Copernicus Products must provide clear and visible attribution to the Copernicus programme. Neither the European Commission nor ECMWF is responsible for any use that may be made of the Copernicus Information or Data it contains. For information about the Copernicus C3S/CAMS License agreement, see:

Original ERA5 data were aggregated in space and time to 0.5° and temporal resolution, respectively. Prior to that aggregation, near-surface wind speed, relative and specific humidity were derived from available ERA5 variables: Near-surface wind speed was computed from near-surface easterly and northerly wind components. Near-surface relative and specific humidity were computed from surface air pressure, near-surface air temperature and near-surface dew point using the equations of Buck (1981, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1981)020<1527:NEFCVP>2.0.CO;2) as described in Buck Research CR-1A User's Manual, Appendix 1 (

In order to minimize discontinuities at the 1978/1979 transition, GSWP3 data were homogenized with ERA5 data using the ISIMIP2BASD v2.0 bias adjustment method.

Download Instructions

For ISIMIP participants, these files are available for download on the DKRZ server using the path /ISIMIP/ISIMIP2a/InputData/climate_co2/climate/HistObs/GSWP3-ERA5/.

For external users, these data are made available on the ISIMIP ESGF server (