Input data set: Reservoirs and dams

Protocol relation: Protocol
Data Type: Other human influences
Simulation rounds: ISIMIP2b, ISIMIP2a, ISIMIP Fast Track

Direct human forcings.

Extension of GRanD reservoirs & dams data.

For some dams for which no construction/commissioning years were given in GRanDv1.1, they were added by PIK according to various sources (see column “SOURCE”).

The dam location data previously to 2010 is based on GRanDv1.1 (Lehner et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1890/100125), but adjusted to match the river-routing network in DDM30. After 2010, the data has been provided by Dr. Jida Wang, from Kansas State University (KSU).

Mapping algorithm developed by Andreas Dobler. Manual mapping done by M.Rocío Rivas, PIK.

Scenarios: histsoc

The original dam locations from the GRanD Global Reservoir and Dam database ( have been rounded to the closest 0.5° grid cell centre. Then, the resulting upstream areas from the DDM30 (Döll, P., Lehner, B., 2002: Validation of a new global 30-min drainage direction map. Journal of Hydrology, 258(1-4), 214-231) Drainage Direction Map (calculated from the upstream cells) have been checked against the ones reported in GRanD. All dams with an upstream area bigger than 10000 km^2 in the GRanD (corresponding to 844 dams and making up 94% of the total upstream area) and more than 50% deviation form the GRanD upstream area (i.e., CATCH_SKM_GRanD > 10000 && ABS(CATCH_SKM_DDM30 - CATCH_SKM_GRanD) > 0.5*CATCH_SKM_GRanD) have been shifted to the 8 possible neighboring cell centers. If this resulted in an improvement, the dam was moved to the grid cell center resulting in the smallest deviation in the upstream area (i.e. MIN(ABS(CATCH_SKM_DDM30 – CATCH_SKM_GRanD))). Totally, 144 dams have been moved (indicated by FLAG_CORR=1).
The additional extended dams (after 2010) from KSU have been manually re-located to the DDM30 stream routing network and FLAG_CORR has been set to 1.

Data source

Use Constraints:
The Global Water System Project (GWSP) holds the copyright of the GRanD database. It is freely available for non-commercial use. Users are prohibited from any commercial resale, or redistribution without explicit written permission from the authors (Lehner et al. 2011) or GWSP. Users should acknowledge the authors (Lehner et al. 2011) and SEDAC as the distributor as the source used in the creation of any reports, publications, new data sets, derived products, or services resulting from the use of this data set. GWSP or CIESIN may also request reprints of any publications.


A few of the dams have no information regarding the construction year, and in the varsoc simulations they are assumed to exist during the whole simulation period.

Download Instructions

For ISIMIP participants, these files are available for download at DKRZ using the path

For external users, these data are available on the ISIMIP repository (

Data link
The data can be downloaded from the ISIMIP Repository: