Input data set: N-Fertilizer

Protocol relation: Protocol
Data Type: Other human influences
Simulation rounds: ISIMIP3a, ISIMIP2b, ISIMIP2a

We provide the fertilization rate per our five canonical crop types, i.e. for both annual and perennial C3 and C4 crops, as well as for nitrogen fixing crops. The variables’ names are fertl_c3ann, fertl_c3per, fertl_c4ann, fertl_c4per and fert_c3nfx. The data are provided on an annual times step on the land surface of a global 0.5° × 0.5° grid. The units are kilograms per year and per hectare.

ISIMIP2a/ISIMIP2b: Data is available for the following time periods: historical (1861-2005), rcp26soc+rcp60soc (2006-2099) (see below for detailed information).

ISIMIP3a: Data is available for the time period: historical (1860-2018).

Scenarios: 1860soc, 2005soc, 2015soc, 2100rcp26soc, hist, histsoc, rcp26soc, rcp60soc

ISIMIP2a/ISIMIP2b: We provide fertilization rates for the historical period 1861–2005 and for the years 2006–2099 for the GHG scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP6.0 for all 4 GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR and MIROC5). Temporally constant fertilization rates are provided in the 1860soc/, 2005soc/ and 2100rcp26soc/ folders. For instance, the files in 2100rcp26soc/ reuse the fertilization rates of 2100 to build a timeline covering 2100–2299. The other ${some_year}soc data is built in a similar manner.

ISIMIP3a: We provide fertilization rates for the historical period 1860-2018. Observation data is provided in the histsoc/ folder. Temporally constant fertilization rates are provided in the 2015soc/ folder.

Data source

ISIMIP2a/ISIMIP2b: The data for the historical time period have been provided by the HYDE group (Hyde 3.2), please refer to Goldewijk et al, DOI 10.17026/dans-znk-cfy3 for details. The fertilization rates for future scenarios are based on data provided by the Hurtt group (data set LUH2 v2f). Originally these data were provided on a 0.25° × 0.25° global grid. The ISIMIP team aggregated to the 0.5° × 0.5° grid, and cell fractions below 0.001 are set to 0. Grid cells with undefined values have been filled with a moving window approach and replaced with 0, since various crop models are unable to handle undefined fertilization rates.

ISIMIP3a: The fertilization rates are based on HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk, 2016), but then harmonized by Hurtt et al (LUH2 v2h data set, see [Hurtt, Chini, Sahajpal, Frolking, & et al, In prep.], see also

Download Instructions

For ISIMIP participants, these files are available for download on the DKRZ server. For ISIMIP2b, using the path /ISIMIP/ISIMIP2b/InputData/n-fertilizer/. For ISIMIP3a, using the path /ISIMIP/ISIMIP3a/InputData/socioeconomic/n-fertilizer/.

For external users, these data are made available on the ISIMIP ESGF server ( Currently they are available via an rsync facility (described here:, for which the password will be provided upon request (