Input data set: Historical country-level Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Protocol relation: Protocol
Data Type: Socio-economic
Simulation rounds: ISIMIP2b, ISIMIP2a

Annual country-level GDP data for 1850-2016.

Scenarios: historical, histsoc
Variables: gdp

National income (GDP/capita) and GDP time series (2005 PPP $) from 1850-2009 from Penn World Tables 8.1 extrapolated with per capita growth rates from the Maddison project (Bolt
et al., 2018,
project/home.htm), and extended by Penn World Tables 9.0 and World Development Indicators. Interpolated between 2006-2009 to match with OECD SSP2 projections starting in 2010.

3 newly available national GDP data sources are used to extend existing national GDP ISIMIP data from 2009 onwards based on matching country-specific national real GDP (PPP 2005 USD) for the year 2009.
In consecutive order we use the Maddison Project Database version 2018 (variable: 'rgdpnapc' and 'pop', unit: 2011 PPP USD), the World Development Indicators (WDI) (variable: NY.GDP.MKTP.PP.KD, unit: 2011 PPP USD), and the Penn World Tables (PWT) version 9 (variable:'rgdpe' and 'pop', unit: 2011 PPP USD) to generate GDP estimates and a country-specific rescaling factor, that transfers 2005 estimates for 2011 PPP USD to 2005 PPP USD.

Data from 2006 onwards is then appended to the previously provided national GDP database.

Data source

For the generation of the old dataset, previously provided national GDP dataset which was available for the period 1850-2005 please consult following references:

Geiger, T. (2018). Continuous national gross domestic product (GDP) time series for 195 countries: past observations (1850-2005) harmonized with future projections according to the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (2006-2100). Earth System Science Data, 10(2), 847–856.

Geiger, T., & Frieler, K. (2017). Continuous national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time series for 195 countries: past observations (1850-2005) harmonized with future projections according to the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (2006-2100).

See also the DOI entry:


Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at

Maddison Project Database, version 2018. Bolt, Jutta, Robert Inklaar, Herman de Jong and Jan Luiten van Zanden (2018), “Rebasing ‘Maddison’: new income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development”, Maddison Project Working paper 10, available for download at

World Development Indicators,, accessed Dec 13, 2018


In addition to caveats mentioned in the references of the previously available data, following additional caveats arise:

1) The assessment of national GDP data between 2006 and 2016 by the different institutions can differ, despite data being reported in identical units.

2) For several countries either no or incomplete data is available beyond 2006. No data are available for countries with ISO codes [NCL, NRU, PYF, SOM]. Incomplete data are available for countries with ISO codes [ABW, BMU, CUB, ERI, PSE].

Download Instructions

For ISIMIP participants, these files are available for download on the DKRZ server using the path
ISIMIP2a: /work/bb0820/ISIMIP/ISIMIP2a/InputData/landuse_humaninfluences/gdp/

Currently they are also available via an rsync facility (described here:, for which the password will be provided upon request (

Please contact for any questions or feedback directly.