Input data set: Historical, gridded and country-level Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Annual country-level GDP data for 1861-2005.

Data Type: Socio-economic
Simulation rounds: ISIMIP2b, ISIMIP2a
Scenarios: histsoc
Variables: gdp

National income (GDP/capita) and GDP time series (2005 PPP $) from 1850-2009 from Penn World Tables 8.1 extrapolated with per capita growth rates from the Maddison project, and extended by Penn World Tables 9.0 and World Development Indicators. Interpolated between 2006-2009 to match with OECD SSP2 projections starting in 2010. For details, see T. Geiger and K. Frieler (2018):

Data source

Per capita GDP (1990 GK $) from the Maddison project (Bolt and van Zanden, 2014,

Per capita GDP (PWT8.1 in 2005 PPP $ and PWT9.0 in 2011 PPP $) and national population from Penn World Tables (Feenstra, Robert C., Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. Timmer (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table" American Economic Review, 105(10), 3150-3182, available for download at

Per capita GDP (2011 PPP $) and national population from World Development Indicators (

National population time series from HYDE 3.2 (

See also the DOI entry:


Accuracy of per capita GDP data varies strongly over time, many early data points are based on interpolation / extrapolation only. Transformation from 1990 GK $ (Maddison project) to 2005 PPP $ (PWT8.1) can cause artefacts in the past. Matching of PWT8.1 to OECD SSP2 data between 2005 and 2010 can cause data points to differ from observations after 2005, in particular for ABW (Aruba), AZE (Azerbaijan), GNQ (Equatorial Guinea), PNG (Papua New Guinea), SLV (El Salvador), TLS (Timor-Leste), ZWE (Zimbabwe). Missing population data causes gaps in early national GDP data for small island states, i.e. BMU (Bermuda), FSM (Micronesia), KIR (Kiribati), MAC (Macau), MDV (Maledives), MHL (Marshall Islands), NRU (Nauru), PYF (French Polynesia), SYC (Seychelles), and TUV (Tuvalu).

For details, see T. Geiger and K. Frieler (

Download Instructions

For ISIMIP participants, these files are available for download on the DKRZ server using the path
ISIMIP2a: /work/bb0820/ISIMIP/ISIMIP2a/InputData/landuse_humaninfluences/gdp/
ISIMIP2b: /work/bb0820/ISIMIP/ISIMIP2b/InputData/gdp/histsoc/

Currently they are also available via an rsync facility (described here:, for which the password will be provided upon request (