Abbreviations in database


mai: maize; whe(w,s): wheat (winter, spring types),; soy: soybean; mill: millet; sub: sugar beet; cass: cassava; fpea: field peas; sunfl: sunflower, rapes: rapeseed; gnut: groundnut; suc: sugarcane; TC: temperate cereals, TrC: tropical cereals; P: pulses; R&T: roots&tubers; OC: oil crops

Land Cover

Choice of grids to simulate (e.g., all land masses or only areas currently producing the crop); P: potential suitable cropland area according to climatic conditions; C: current harvested areas (source of data); SPAM: Spatial Production Allocation Model dataset - You, L., et al., Spatial Produciton Allocation Model (SPAM) 2000 Version 3 Release 1. (Accessed Feb, 2012)

Planting date decision

S: Simulate planting dates according to climatic conditions; F: fixed planting dates; source of planting date data if applicable; PHU: potential heat unit

Planting density

D: Planting density: Fraction of gridcell area covered by vegetation (crop); raw spacing;

Crop cultivars

GDD: Simulate crop Growing Degree Days (GDDs) requirement according to estimated annual GDDs from daily temperature; Number of cultivars; GDD+V GDD requirements and vernalization requirements computed based on past climate experience; BT basetemperature computed based on past climate

Fertilizer application

Fertiliser application, timing of application; NPK annual application of total NPK (nutrient-stress factor); source of fertiliser application data; timing: A (annual),


Irrigation: source of irrigation data; U: no restriction on actual water availability, irrigated water applied when water stress; L: limited water availability, water applied if water deficit and available; MIRCA 2000: crop specific irrigated area (Portmann et al., 2010)

Crop residue

Remove residue or not (Yes/No)

Initial soil water

Soil water (e.g., spin up/how, assume at field capacity or some fraction of that amount); Sup(x): x number of years for spin up

Initial soil nitrate and ammonia

Soil nitrate and ammonia in profile

Initial soil C and OM

Soil carbon or organic matter in profile – method and assumptions

Initial crop residue

Initial crop residue

Leaf area development

Leaf area development: P: Predefined inut; D: Dynamic simulation based on development and growth processes; PS: prescribed shape of LAI curve as function of phenology, modified by water stress & low productivity

Light interception

Light interception; S: Simple approach: D: Detailed approach;

Light utilization

Light utilization or biomass growth: RUE: Simple (descriptive) Radiation use efficiency approach; P-R: Detailed (explanatory) Gross photosynthesis – respiration, (for more details, see e.g. Adam et al. (2011)); TE: compute water use first, then biomass growth from transpiration efficiency;

Yield formation

Yield formation depending on: HI: fixed harvest index; B: total (above-ground) biomass; Gn: number of grains and grain growth rate; Prt: partitioning during reproductive stages; HIws: HI modified by water stress

Crop phenology

Crop phenology is a function of: T: temperature; DL: photoperiod (day length); O: other water/nutrient stress effects considered; V: vernalization; HU: Heat unit index;

Root distribution over depth

Root distribution over depth: linear (LIN), exponential (EXP), sigmoidal (SIG), no roots-just soil depth zone (NON); W: actuals water depends on water availability in each soil layer

Stresses involved

W: water stress; N: nitrogen stress; A: oxygen stress; H: heat stress; P:phosphorus; BD:bulk density; AL:aluminum (based on pH and base saturation); P: phosphorus

Type of water stress

E: ratio of supply to demand of water; S: soil available water in root zone;

Type of heat stress

V: vegetative (source); R: reproductive organ (sink); F: number of grain (pod) set during the flowering period

Water dynamics

C(x): soil water capacity approach (x number of soil layers), R = Richards approach;


P = Penman; PM = Penman-Monteith, PT = Priestley -Taylor, TW = Turc-Wendling, Makk = Makkink, HAR = Hargreaves, SW= Shuttleworth and Wallace (resistive model); applied for Müncheberg site; TE = transpiration efficiency

Soil CN model

C model; N model; P(x): x number of organic matter pools; B: microbial biomass pool;

CO2 effects (25)

Elevated CO2 effects on LF: Leaf-level photosynthesis-rubisco or on QE and Amax; RUE: Radiation use efficiency; TE: Transpiration efficiency; NE: nutrient use efficiency; VP: vapour pressure deficit;

Parameters, number and description (26)

beta: light-use efficiency factor (beta factor); LAImax: maximum LAI under unstressed conditions, HI harvest index, alphaa: factor for scaling leaf-level photosynthesis to stand level

Calibrated values

Please, fill values once calibration is done using observed climate data provided for this comparison study

Output variable and dataset for calibration/validation

M3: gridded dataset of crop specific yields and harvested areas for the year 2000 (Monfreda et al., 2008)

Spatial scale of calibration/validation

Original M3 dataset is at 5’ lon x 5’ lat and is interpolated to 0.5º lon x 0.5º lat

Temporal scale of calibration/validation

M3 dataset corresponds to the year 2000 (average for years 1997-2004)

Criteria for evaluation (validation)

Willmott: RMSEu>RMSEs, maximise d (RMSE: root-mean-square error; RMSEu: unsystematic RMSE; RMSEs: systematic RMSE; d: Wilmott index of agreement) (Wilmott et al., 1985 and Wilmott, 1982)