Impact model: FORMIND

local, regional

FORMIND is an individual-based, spatially explicit and process-based model designed for simulating species-rich vegetation communities. It simulates establishment, growth, mortality and competition for resources (light, water, space).
The growth simulation is based on a carbon ballance effected by the individual environmental conditions of each tree.

Information for the model FORMIND is provided for the simulation rounds shown in the tabs below. Click on the appropriate tab to get the information for the simulation round you are interested in.

Person responsible for model simulations in this simulation round
Friedrich Bohn:, 0000-0002-7328-1187, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung (Leipzig) (Germany)
Additional persons involved: Friedrich J. Bohn
Basic information
Model Version: FORMIND 3.1
Model Output License: CC0
Reference Paper: Main Reference: Bohn F, Frank K, Huth A et al. Of climate and its resulting tree growth: Simulating the productivity of temperate forests. Ecological Modelling,278,9-17,2014
Spatial aggregation: forest stand
Temporal resolution of input data: climate variables: daily
Temporal resolution of input data: co2: annual
Temporal resolution of input data: soil: constant
Additional temporal resolution information: output is annual. However some subrutines (e.g. water ballance is calculated inside the simulation on higher temporal resolution (daily)).
Was a spin-up performed?: No
Management & Adaptation Measures
Management: thinning from below or from above according to targets of stem biomass or stem number or relative targets of stem biomass planting, natural regeneration short-rotation coppice
Extreme Events & Disturbances
Key challenges: drought stress
Key model processes
Dynamic vegetation: yes: Forest dynamics are described by forest growth, regeneration/planting, management.
Nitrogen limitation: no
Co2 effects: yes.
Light interception: The total fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by each tree is calculated every year and depends on the LAI on top of the tree using the Lambert-Beer law.
Light utilization: Light use efficiency is calculated according to Haxeltine and Prentice (1996).
Phenology: only for deciduous trees using a degree day sum approach (Sato et al. 2007)
Water stress: After calculating water demand by forest stand and water supply from the soil for each tree cohort photosynthesis is being reduced if demand is greater than supply. Allocation is also affected.
Differences in rooting depth: The model uses a fixed site-specific rooting depth as input parameter depending on soil characteristics.
Root distribution over depth: homogenous. one bucked approach
Closed energy balance: It is not considered.
Coupling/feedback between soil moisture and surface temperature: No
Latent heat: Latent heat is not calculated.
Sensible heat: Sensible heat is not calculated.
Causes of mortality in vegetation models
Age/senescence: age of trees is tracked but has no direkt influene of processes
Drought: The response of trees to growth suppression by drought is described by a carbon-based stress mortality .
NBP components
Harvest: The model includes harvests, which effect all fluxes
Other processes: Dead biomass which is not harvested is an input to the litter pool, where it is decomposed.
Species / Plant Functional Types (PFTs)
List of species / pfts: spruce, pine, beech, oak, poplar, ash, robinia, birch
Model output specifications
Output format: per forest stand/ per simulated forest unit
Additional Forest Information
Forest sites simulated: Soroe, Hyytiälä, KROOF, Solling beech, Solling spruce, Peitz, Colllelongo