Impact model: SWAP

SWAP is one of the 15 regional hydrology models following the ISIMIP2a protocol which form the base of simulations for the ISIMIP2a regional water sector outputs; for a full technical description of the ISIMIP2a Simulation Data from Water (regional) Sector, see this DOI link: http://doi.org/10.5880/PIK.2018.007

Sector
Water (regional)
Region
regional
Contact Person
  • Georgy Ayzel (hydrogo@yandex.ru), Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) (Russia)
  • Yeugeniy Gusev (sowaso@yandex.ru), Institute of Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)
  • Evgeny E. Kovalev (eekovalev@gmail.com), Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) (Russia)
  • Olga Nasonova (olniknas@yandex.ru), Institute of Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)

Information for the model SWAP is provided for the simulation rounds shown in the tabs below. Click on the appropriate tab to get the information for the simulation round you are interested in.

Basic information
Model Version: SWAP
Model output license: CC0
Reference Paper: Main Reference: Gusev Ye.M., Nasonova O.N. et al. Modelling heat and water exchange in the boreal spruce forest by the land-surface model SWAP. J. Hydrology,280,162-191,2003
Reference Paper: Other References:
Person Responsible For Model Simulations In This Simulation Round: Olga Nasonova
Output Data
Experiments: historical (Lena, Darling, MacKenzie, Mississippi, Amazon, Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Yellow, Yangtze)
Climate Drivers: WATCH (WFD)
Date: 2017-02-20
Resolution
Spatial Aggregation: regular grid
Spatial Resolution: 0.5°x0.5°
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Climate Variables: daily
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Land Use/Land Cover: fixed monthly vegetation parameters from ECOCLIMAP
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Soil: fixed over time
Input data sets used
Observed Atmospheric Climate Data Sets Used: WATCH (WFD)
Other Data Sets Used: Land-sea mask
Climate Variables: tas, rlds, wind, rhs, rsds, ps, pr
Additional Input Data Sets: Vegetation and soil parameters were taken or derived from ECOCLIMAP
Spin-up
Was A Spin-Up Performed?: Yes
Spin-Up Design: We started the simulations from 1July 1969 and the first year was simulated 4 times for spin-up (according to our experience it is enough to reach equilibrium by our model).
Natural Vegetation
Natural Vegetation Partition: We aggregated parameters taken from ECOCLIMAP for 0.5 deg grid cells
Natural Vegetation Dynamics: Prescribed monthly vegetation parameters.
Natural Vegetation Cover Dataset: We aggregated parameters taken from ECOCLIMAP for 0.5 deg grid cells
Management & Adaptation Measures
Management: no
Extreme Events & Disturbances
Key Challenges: Time step should be finer to reproduce high flow more accurately.
Methods
Potential Evapotranspiration: See papers
Snow Melt: Energy balance
Vegetation
How Is Vegetation Represented?: prescriped
Approach Used To Simulate Vegetation Dynamics: Fixed monthly vegetation characteristics.
Routing
Runoff Routing: Kinematic wave equation for water transfer within a grid cell and a linear routing scheme by Oki et al. (1999) for water transfer in a river channel.
Routing Data: Routing data were prepared by ourselves
Calibration
Was The Model Calibrated?: True
Was The Model Validated/Evaluated?: True
Calibration And Validation Periods: SWAP was calibrated and validated against monthly values of measured river runoff with application of forcing data from the WATCH data set for the period of 1970-2001, eight of which (different for different rivers depending on the available measured runoff) were used for calibration; the rest years were used for model validation.
Calibration And Validation Method: Calibration was carried out automatically using the SCE-UA. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency was used as an objective function. The search for the maximum of the objective function was performed, under the condition that an absolute value of bias does not exceed 5%. For the Lena and MacKenzie rivers, calibration for discharge was performed at three gauges, while for the rest rivers at the basin outlets.
Modelled catchments
Modelled catchments: Lena, Darling, MacKenzie, Mississippi, Amazon, Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Yellow, Yangtze