Impact model: LAKE

LAKE is an extended one-dimensional model of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes in the water basin and the bottom sediments (Stepanenko and Lykosov 2005, Stepanenko et al. 2011). The model simulates vertical heat transfer taking into account the penetration of short-wave radiation in water layers (Heiskanen et al., 2015), ice, snow and bottom sediments. The model allows for the evolution of ice layer at the bottom after complete lake freezing in winter. The equations of the model are formulated in terms of quantities averaged over the horizontal section a water body, which leads to an explicit account of the exchange of momentum, heat, and dissolved gases between water and the inclined bottom. In the water column, k−ϵ parametrization of turbulence is applied. The equations of motion take into account the barotropic (Stepanenko et al., 2016) and baroclinic pressure gradient (Степаненко, 2018). The snow model accounts for the vertical transfer of heat and the liquid moisture (Volodina et al. 2000). In bottom sediments, water phase changes are simulated. The model also describes vertical diffusion of dissolved gases (CO_2, CH_4​, O_2​​), as well as their bubble transfer, methane oxidation, photosynthesis and processes of oxygen consumption. Parameterization of methane production in sediments is included (Stepanenko et al. 2011), and for the case of thermokarst lakes, an original formulation for the methane production near the lower boundary of "talik" is implemented. Model was tested in respect to thermal and ice regime at a number reservoirs in contrasting climate conditions, specifically, within the LakeMIP project (Lake Model Intercomparison Project, Stepanenko et al., 2010; Stepanenko et al., 2013; Stepanenko et al., 2014; Thiery et al., 2014). References Heiskanen, J. J., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Stepanenko, V., Erkkilä, K.-M., Miettinen, H., … Nordbo, A. (2015). Effects of water clarity on lake stratification and lake-atmosphere heat exchange. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(15). Stepanenko, V. M., & Lykossov, V. N. (2005). Numerical modeling of heat and moisture transfer processes in a system lake—soil. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, 3, 95–104. Stepanenko, V. M., Machul’skaya, E. E., Glagolev, M. V., & Lykossov, V. N. (2011). Numerical modeling of methane emissions from lakes in the permafrost zone. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 47(2), 252–264. Stepanenko, V. M., Martynov, A., Jöhnk, K. D., Subin, Z. M., Perroud, M., Fang, X., … Goyette, S. (2013). A one-dimensional model intercomparison study of thermal regime of a shallow, turbid midlatitude lake. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(4), 1337–1352. Stepanenko, V., Jöhnk, K. D., Machulskaya, E., Perroud, M., Subin, Z., Nordbo, A., … Mironov, D. (2014). Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66(1). Stepanenko, V., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Miettinen, H., Lykosov, V., & Vesala, T. (2016). LAKE 2.0: a model for temperature, methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen dynamics in lakes. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(5), 1977–2006. Thiery, W., Stepanenko, V., Fang, X., Jöhnk, K., Li, Z., Martynov, A., … van Lipzig, N. (2014). LakeMIP Kivu: evaluating the representation of a large, deep tropical lake by a set of one-dimensional lake models. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66. Volodina, E., Bengtsson, L., & Lykosov, V. N. (2000). Parameterization of heat and moisture transfer in a snow cover for modelling of seasonal variations of land hydrological cycle. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, (5), 5–14. Степаненко В.М. (2018) Параметризация сейш для одномерной модели водоёма. Труды Московского физико-технического института. Accepted.

Lakes (global)
Contact Person
  • Andrey Debolskiy (, Lomonosov Moscow State University; A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russia)
  • Victor Stepanenko (, Lomosonov Moscow State University(Russia) (Russia)

Information for the model LAKE is provided for the simulation rounds shown in the tabs below. Click on the appropriate tab to get the information for the simulation round you are interested in.

Basic information
Model Version: 2.0
Model output license: CC BY 4.0
Reference Paper: Main Reference: Stepanenko V, Mammarella I, Ojala A, Miettinen H, Lykosov V, Vesala T et al. LAKE 2.0: a model for temperature, methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen dynamics in lakes. Geoscientific Model Development,9,1977-2006,2016
Person Responsible For Model Simulations In This Simulation Round: Victor Stepanenko
Output Data
Experiments: II, III, VIII (no future_extended period simulations)
Climate Drivers: IPSL-CM5A-LR, HadGEM2-ES, GFDL-ESM2M, MIROC5
Date: 2019-12-09
Spatial Aggregation: regular grid
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Climate Variables: daily
Input data sets used
Simulated Atmospheric Climate Data Sets Used: MIROC5 (rcp45), HadGEM2-ES (rcp45), IPSL-CM5A-LR (rcp45), GFDL-ESM2M (rcp45), IPSL-CM5A-LR, HadGEM2-ES, GFDL-ESM2M, MIROC5
Observed Atmospheric Climate Data Sets Used: EWEMBI
Other Data Sets Used: Land-sea mask
Climate Variables: ta, huss, sfcWind, rlds, rsds, ps, pr
Additional Input Data Sets: Global lake depth database GLDBv2 (
Was A Spin-Up Performed?: Yes
Spin-Up Design: 30 years of spinup using 1661-1670 picontrol data
Potential Evapotranspiration: (Stepanenko et al., 2016, GMD)
Snow Melt: (Stepanenko et al., 2019, Izv. PAO)
Additional questions 1
How did you initialise you lake temperature profile?: Surface temperature is set as air temperature. Bottom temperature is 4 deg. Between surface and bottom temperature is linearly interpolated.
How did you set lake depth?: Global lake depth database GLDBv2 (
How did you set water transparency?: Following empirical relation of extinction coefficient to lake depth by (Hakanson, 1995)