Impact Model Settings & Characteristics
Impact model: LAKE
LAKE is an extended one-dimensional model of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes in the water basin and the bottom sediments (Stepanenko and Lykosov 2005, Stepanenko et al. 2011). The model simulates vertical heat transfer taking into account the penetration of short-wave radiation in water layers (Heiskanen et al., 2015), ice, snow and bottom sediments. The model allows for the evolution of ice layer at the bottom after complete lake freezing in winter. The equations of the model are formulated in terms of quantities averaged over the horizontal section a water body, which leads to an explicit account of the exchange of momentum, heat, and dissolved gases between water and the inclined bottom. In the water column, k−ϵ parametrization of turbulence is applied. The equations of motion take into account the barotropic (Stepanenko et al., 2016) and baroclinic pressure gradient (Степаненко, 2018). The snow model accounts for the vertical transfer of heat and the liquid moisture (Volodina et al. 2000). In bottom sediments, water phase changes are simulated. The model also describes vertical diffusion of dissolved gases (CO_2, CH_4, O_2), as well as their bubble transfer, methane oxidation, photosynthesis and processes of oxygen consumption. Parameterization of methane production in sediments is included (Stepanenko et al. 2011), and for the case of thermokarst lakes, an original formulation for the methane production near the lower boundary of "talik" is implemented. Model was tested in respect to thermal and ice regime at a number reservoirs in contrasting climate conditions, specifically, within the LakeMIP project (Lake Model Intercomparison Project, Stepanenko et al., 2010; Stepanenko et al., 2013; Stepanenko et al., 2014; Thiery et al., 2014).
Heiskanen, J. J., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Stepanenko, V., Erkkilä, K.-M., Miettinen, H., … Nordbo, A. (2015). Effects of water clarity on lake stratification and lake-atmosphere heat exchange. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(15). http://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022938
Stepanenko, V. M., & Lykossov, V. N. (2005). Numerical modeling of heat and moisture transfer processes in a system lake—soil. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, 3, 95–104.
Stepanenko, V. M., Machul’skaya, E. E., Glagolev, M. V., & Lykossov, V. N. (2011). Numerical modeling of methane emissions from lakes in the permafrost zone. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 47(2), 252–264. http://doi.org/10.1134/S0001433811020113
Stepanenko, V. M., Martynov, A., Jöhnk, K. D., Subin, Z. M., Perroud, M., Fang, X., … Goyette, S. (2013). A one-dimensional model intercomparison study of thermal regime of a shallow, turbid midlatitude lake. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(4), 1337–1352. http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-1337-2013
Stepanenko, V., Jöhnk, K. D., Machulskaya, E., Perroud, M., Subin, Z., Nordbo, A., … Mironov, D. (2014). Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66(1). http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.21389
Stepanenko, V., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Miettinen, H., Lykosov, V., & Vesala, T. (2016). LAKE 2.0: a model for temperature, methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen dynamics in lakes. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(5), 1977–2006. http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-1977-2016
Thiery, W., Stepanenko, V., Fang, X., Jöhnk, K., Li, Z., Martynov, A., … van Lipzig, N. (2014). LakeMIP Kivu: evaluating the representation of a large, deep tropical lake by a set of one-dimensional lake models. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66. http://doi.org/doi:10.3402/tellusa.v66.21390
Volodina, E., Bengtsson, L., & Lykosov, V. N. (2000). Parameterization of heat and moisture transfer in a snow cover for modelling of seasonal variations of land hydrological cycle. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, (5), 5–14.
Степаненко В.М. (2018) Параметризация сейш для одномерной модели водоёма. Труды Московского физико-технического института. Accepted.
- Lakes (global)
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