Impact model: ORCHIDEE

ORCHIDEE is one of the 13 global hydrology models following the ISIMIP2a protocol which form the base of simulations for the ISIMIP2a global water sector outputs; for a full technical description of the ISIMIP2a Simulation Data from Water (global) Sector, see this DOI link:

Water (global)
Contact Person

Information for the model ORCHIDEE is provided for the simulation rounds shown in the tabs below. Click on the appropriate tab to get the information for the simulation round you are interested in.

Basic information
Model Version: rev3013
Reference Paper: Main Reference: Traore A, Ciais P, Vuichard N, Poulter B, Viovy N, Guimberteau M, Jung M, Myneni R, Fisher J et al. Evaluation of the ORCHIDEE ecosystem model over Africa against 25 years of satellite-based water and carbon measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences,119,1554-1575,2014
Reference Paper: Other References:
Output Data
Experiments: historical
Climate Drivers: GSWP3, PGMFD v.2 (Princeton), WATCH (WFD), WATCH+WFDEI
Date: 2016-05-11
Spatial Aggregation: regular grid
Spatial Resolution: 0.5°x0.5°
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Climate Variables: daily
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Co2: annual
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Land Use/Land Cover: annual
Temporal Resolution Of Input Data: Soil: constant
Input data sets used
Observed Atmospheric Climate Data Sets Used: GSWP3, PGMFD v.2 (Princeton), WATCH (WFD), WATCH+WFDEI
Climate Variables: tasmax, tasmin, rlds, wind, rhs, rsds, ps, pr
Was A Spin-Up Performed?: Yes
Spin-Up Design: We use the 1901-1910 climate condition, pre-industry CO2 (287.14 ppm), land cover map of 1860 to do the spin-up until the soil carbon to be equilibrium. Then a simulation from 1861 to 1900 was performed with varied CO2 and land-cover/land-use change, and climate of 1901-1910 cycled. The final transient simulation of 1901-2012 was forced by varied climate, CO2 and land-cover/land-use change.
Natural Vegetation
Natural Vegetation Partition: Prescribe natural vegetation cover. The land cover map is derived from GLC2000, and classified according to Poulter et al., 2011. The land-cover change is derived from Hurtt et al., dataset.
Management & Adaptation Measures
Management: no
Technological Progress
Technological Progress: No
Soil Layers: 11 layer water difussion
Water Use
Water-Use Types: No
Water-Use Sectors: we only have nosoc runs
Runoff Routing: will be based on DDM30
Land Use
Land-Use Change Effects: MIRCA dynamic land use change
Dams & Reservoirs
Dam And Reservoir Implementation: No
Is Co2 Fertilisation Accounted For?: True
How Is Vegetation Represented?: Dynamic simulation of growth and productivity (with prescribed spatial distribution of crops and pasture), annual natural vegetation fraction (PFTs) is forced based on harmonized GLC2000 for year 2000 and LUH dataset (Hurtt et al., 2011) for land cover change.
Potential Evapotranspiration: "Penman-Monteith, Milly’s correction for soil moisture stress is applied."
Snow Melt: Energy balance at the snow surface