Impact model: 4C

The model 4C (‘FORESEE’-Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment) has been developed to describe long-term forest behaviour under changing environmental conditions. It describes processes on tree and stand level based on findings from eco-physiological experiments, long term observations and physiological modelling. The model includes descriptions of tree species composition, forest structure, total ecosystem carbon content as well as leaf area index. The model shares a number of features with gap models, which have often been used for the simulation of long-term forest development. Establishment, growth and mortality of tree cohorts are explicitly modelled on a patch on which horizontal homogeneity is assumed. Currently the model is parameterised for the five most abundant tree species of Central Europe (beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oaks ( Quercus robur L., and Quercus petraea Liebl.), and birch (Betula pendula Roth)) as well as other tree species, namely aspen (Populus tremula (L.), P. tremuloides (Michx.)), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.), and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.).

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Information for the model 4C is provided for the simulation rounds shown in the tabs below. Click on the appropriate tab to get the information for the simulation round you are interested in.